Thus, in order to fully appreciate the task of conflict resolution there, it is important to look at past attempts at conflict resolution in order to consider ideas for the future. The Nigerian government has failed woefully to keep faith with the social contract between it and the people of the Niger Delta.
Conclusion From the events recorded in the region under study, it is obvious that in addition to CSR-related issues there are other drivers of perennial oil conflict in Niger Delta between the communities, the government and the companies.
Implications for socio-ecological conflicts in Nigeria. Scoping gaps for policy and advocacy. Prof Frynas, from Middlesex University in the UK, says it is unlikely that oil companies will pull out of Nigeria but they have already started to move to off-shore oil fields, which are further from population centres and so less vulnerable to attack.
The study will specifically assess the failure of the Nigerian government to address the grievances of the Niger Delta people which played a major role in causing and escalating the crisis in the region.
With the frustration of being unable to express themselves since they are mostly confronted with brute force, anger has grown in the hearts of the people and in the case of Niger Delta militants have declared an open war against the government.
However, no attempts have been made by the government or any international body to bring about justice by investigating and prosecuting those involved in the violence and property destruction that have occurred in Ogoniland,  although individual plaintiffs have brought a class action lawsuit against Shell in the US.
Natural resources and conflict: However, there has been recourse to arms in the region in recent times as new militant groups emerged in with various demands. Although many scholars have conducted studies concerning the Niger Delta, this article specifically explores the nature of CSR related conflict and how the multinational oil companies MNOCs have been the stakeholders of conflict with the support of government against the host communities.
This makes it crucial for the companies to adopt effective mechanisms to mitigate environmental degradation and gas flaring. The following tables show that oil production and the politics of oil between oil companies, host communities and federal government remain the sources of violent deaths in the Niger Delta: Sincemany have been killed, some jailed, and others were forced into exile.
Soldiers opened fire with rifles, machine guns, and tear gas, killing at least three protesters and arresting twenty-five more.
The Journal of Modern African Studies39 3 Leaders and stakeholders from the region rejected this, however, on the grounds that they were not consulted before it was proposed Omotayo In the early s, there were also non-violent protests in Ogoniland to protest against the degradation of the environment by Oil companies.
Consequently, the dialectics of resource control are critical to an understanding of the dilemma of the minorities in the oil producing communities in Nigeria.
This research could be beneficial to understand or find the best solutions for conflict resolution regarding the Niger Delta conflict. This article has identified the protagonists in the oil-related conflict.
The best strategy in actualising this is that they begin to address all sources of grievance which would mitigate the unprecedented level of social inequality that seem to characterise the oil producing communities. This figure eventually rose to 2, civilian deaths and the displacement of aroundinternal refugees.
Characteristics of the collective non-violent approach It is usually undertaken by an ad-hoc arrangement or coalition that deals with specific security challenges and immediate conflict management needs in the situation concerned.
Natural resources and conflict in Africa: In both cases, the governments have shunned most opportunities to engage in genuine dialogue with the aggrieved communities. Some of the notable militant groups are: Of them, 20 accepted the offer on or before 4th October and 6 during November Ejovi and Ebie Both Nigeria and Cameroon share their longest international border with each other, starting from the Atlantic coast in the South through the desert in the North.
Botswana for example, had less than kilometres of tarred roads in the s. The government abdicated its constitutional responsibility to look after the welfare of the people of the region by failing to stop the holocaust perpetrated by the MNOCs under the guise of doing business.
This has instead won more sympathisers for the Niger Delta militants in Nigeria and the Southern Cameroons movements in Cameroon. Poverty and urbanization in Nigeria are growing, and official corruption is considered a fact of life. However, became one of the bloodiest years in the conflict with the military firing live rounds on unarmed people.
The analysis revealed that the frustration of the people of the Niger Delta resulting from the failure of the Nigerian government to satisfy their socio-economic needs led them into and escalated the orgy of violence witnessed in the region.
It is crucial to assert that the conflict involves many stakeholders whose goals are sometimes incompatible, hence the conflict escalation.
It is expensive as it requires using a neutral location such as another country and paying members of the team of negotiators and the mediator. For instance, inabout four members of the Operation Crocodile Smile died when their boat capsized while they were on patrol.
It has been noted that the major impact of the CSR conflict is the atmosphere of instability and the negative peace which characterises the region with death of vulnerable groups.using the frustration agressioin theory to explain the conflict of niger delta and the federal government of Nigeria Abstract For years, the people of the Niger Delta were at logger-head with the Nigerian government.
This article evaluates the nature of corporate social responsibility related oil conflict with emphasis on the key reasons for the conflict in the Niger Delta region that has remained impoverished despite the region's huge contributions to the Nigerian economy for many decades.
the study argues, based on the stakeholder's theory that there. The Niger-Delta conflict is a perfect demonstration of this theory because people are frustrated by lack of development, etc.
However, this theory has been criticised on the ground that “aggressive response to frustration may be dependent upon the individual’s level of tolerance” Afinotan and Ojakorotu, (). Theories of Social Conflict Theory Structural Realist to explain something which has occurred with a view of dealing with problems which arose or may arise as a result”.3 Social Conflict 4.
explain. That is. ) A theory is also stated to be “an idea or belief about something arrived at through assumption and in some 5/5(6). The Niger Delta conflict in Nigeria and the Anglophone problem in Cameroon have grown to be two comparable conflicts happening in neighbouring territories.
Nigerian oil fuels Delta conflict Nigeria's Delta region is home to vast oil reserves, which make the country one of the world's biggest oil exporters. In order to raise living standards in the region, the government and oil companies have set up the Niger Delta Development Commission.Download